Management of Cultural Landscapes, CRM Guideline (NPS-28)

Park Cultural Landscapes Program

Updated Cultural Landscapes

Cultural Landscapes Chapter in NPS-28

Cultural Resource Management Guideline (NPS-28) identifies the basic principles of Cultural Resource Management (CRM) and outlines the ingredients of an effective CRM program in parks. CRM is defined by the Guideline as research, planning and stewardship in relation to the major resource types recognized in the Management Policies:

  • Archeological Resources
  • Cultural Landscapes
  • Structures
  • Museum Objects
  • Ethnographic Resources

Chapter 7 of the Cultural Resource Management Guideline provides the NPS procedural framework for the “Management of Cultural Landscapes.”

Chapter Contents

Aerial photo of Fort Laramie showing the Fort grounds and landscape setting of the Great Plains.
Fort Laramie in Wyoming
  • Program Objectives
  • Cultural Landscape Categories
  • Research and Identification
  • Documentation, Evaluation and Registration

    An aerial view of a reindeer herding shute and corral within a tundra landscape.
    Goodhope River Reindeer Herding Site
  • Significance
  • Integrity
  • National Register Nominations
  • Cultural Landscapes Inventory
  • Cultural Landscape Report
  • Planning
  • Stewardship
  • Treatment
  • Biotic Systems Treatment
  • Specimen Plant Management
  • Vegetation Systems Management
  • Pest Management
  • Endangered Species
  • Inventory and Condition Assessment Program-ICAP (predecessor to Facility Management Software System – FMSS)
  • Partnerships
  • Acquisition of Land and Interests
  • Adjacent Lands
  • Destruction or Neglect of Cultural Landscapes
  • Cemeteries
  • Earthworks
  • Monuments, Memorials and Landscape Remnants

Introducing Cultural Landscapes

“Cultural landscapes are complex resources that range from large rural tracts covering several thousand acres to formal gardens of less than an acre.  Natural features such as landforms, soils, and vegetation are not only part of the cultural landscape, they provide the framework within which it evolves.

A view of gravestones in the Andrew Johnson National Cemetery with fresh snow fall and wreath laid upon the gravestones for Veterans Day.
Andrew Johnson National Cemetery

In the broadest sense, a cultural landscape is a reflection of human adaptation and use of natural resources and is often expressed in the way land is organized and divided, patterns of settlement, land use, systems of circulation, and the types of structures that are built.  The character of a cultural landscape is defined both by physical materials, such as roads, buildings, walls and vegetation, and by use reflecting cultural values and traditions.”


Can’t find what you need?  Contact the Park Cultural Landscapes Program via email or the program lead in your region.

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