Today’s topic: Variation on a Theme – Embracing the Essential Question
I experienced my first interpretive training in 1983, shortly after I became a permanent interpreter at Mammoth Cave National Park. The “Interpretive Skills” training curriculum of that era (which preceded the IDP) emphasized the need for an organized and outlined program, based on an interpretive theme statement. Learning how to write a proper theme statement was very satisfying to my Type A personality – and supported the process we learned about program construction and delivery:
- Tell them what you’re gonna tell them (state your theme)
- Tell them (provide content that supports your theme)
- Tell them what you told them (summarize and restate your theme)
A couple of years later, when I began to supervise, train and coach seasonal interpreters, I strongly encouraged thematic interpretation as the gold standard. I encouraged new interpreters to emulate experienced colleagues who could spin an amazing story around a powerful and creative theme, presenting programs that held visitors in rapt attention and usually led to applause at the end. These programs focused on the thoughts and content selected and organized by the interpreter, and “presented” to the audience as passive consumers.
As part of the shift towards meanings-based interpretation that the Interpretive Development Program (IDP) began to popularize in 1996, theme statements anchored by a universal concept helped move the needle toward audience relevance. The core standard for all interpretive products to help visitors form “their own intellectual and emotional connections to resource meanings” helped us begin to prioritize audience needs and interests. But programs still revolved around the “relevant idea” that expressed the interpreter’s voice and perspective on a topic. I came to Mather Training Center at the beginning of this shift, and the last twenty years of my career have been devoted to training interpreters in these principles and standards of the IDP (see reference to Tradition and Transition below).
Thankfully (I am truly and deeply thankful), I am part of a profession that yearns to improve – and is capable of recognizing the need to continuously grow and evolve. So I am thrilled that we can learn from our colleagues in the education realm, and adapt a really smart strategy to focus our interpretive programs and media products around an inquiry-based approach using “essential questions.” Essential questions “engage learners in thoughtful ‘meaning making’ to help them develop and deepen their understanding of important ideas and processes.” (McTighe and Wiggins, 2012)
Developing an interpretive product around an overarching, open-ended essential question, rather than a theme statement, creates the space for co-discovery with your audience, inviting their contribution of content and co-creation of meanings, rather than a one-way, didactic presentation. A good essential question is broad with possibility for collaborative learning — it allows you to facilitate the experience in response to audience interests using supporting dialogic questions, techniques and pertinent site content. Essential questions also make it possible to connect your site’s stories to bigger ideas and issues that are important to society and personally meaningful to visitors’ lives. Thus, essential questions help us convey the evolving relevance of these places that leads to grasping the importance of their preservation (rather than the other way around – the assumption that we’re preserving them, therefore they must be relevant).
Freeman Tilden said “The chief aim of Interpretation is not instruction, but provocation” (his Principle #4). Essential questions are all about provocation! I used to be a card-carrying member of the “theme police” (every interpretive product needed a well-written theme statement). Now I’m a total protégé of essential questions because I think they can really help us break open whole new possibilities for provocation, exploring meanings, and collaborative learning. Here are some resources you can explore on your own to learn about and see some examples of essential questions.
Essential Theme Questions – The Big, Juicy So-Whats; Audience Centered Experience Interpretation Workbook, NPS Interpretive Development Program, 2017
Tradition and Transition: A Guide to Evolving Foundations Terminology, Stephanie Kyriazis and Cynthia Langguth, 2017 (see section on Themes)
What Is an Essential Question? Grant Wiggins, AuthenticEducation.org, Nov 15, 2007 (slow to download, but provides a good summary worth waiting for)
Video: Grant and Jay on Essential Questions, Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, kineticvideo.com, 2014
Essential Questions, Jeffrey D. Wilhelm, Scholastic.net, 2017
Interpreting Our Heritage, Freeman Tilden, 1957 (see Chapter 5 – Not Instruction But Provocation)